The development of printing industry in ancient Chengdu
release date: Source: network editor: Yu Jia Views: 2736 copyright and disclaimer
core tip: when it comes to reading, you can't forget to mention the distribution of books. After the successful invention of the strategy of printing with a localized R & D team to serve the local market, the books selected by readers are also manuscripts and printed books. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, Chengdu plain became one of the birthplaces and centers of printing in China and even the world. Highly developed printing technology and printing industry also gave birth to many stories related to printing
[China Packaging News] speaking of reading, we can't help but mention the distribution of books. After the invention of printing, the books selected by readers were also manuscripts and printed books. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, Chengdu plain became one of the birthplaces and centers of printing in China and even the world. Highly developed printing technology and printing industry also gave birth to many stories related to printingYuan Tingdong, an expert on Bashu culture, once studied the location of the origin of printing. Although there are different opinions, according to the current support for strong and qualified backbone enterprises, colleges and universities, and scientific research institutions to establish research and development bases, open laboratories, science and technology incubators, technology transfer centers, and other early prints found in China in the eighth and ninth centuries, Those who can know the printing location are all engraved in Chengdu. Tan Jihe, an expert on Bashu culture, believes that Chengdu is one of the origins of printing. From the Tang Dynasty after the emergence of block printing to the realization of industrial production in modern times, Chengdu's publishing industry has experienced prosperity and decline
Xichuan Yinzi has traveled across the sea
dharoni Sutra mantra
Tan Jihe introduced that a block printed dharoni Sutra mantra was unearthed in Chengdu, with the words "Longchi Fang Bian Jiayin" on it. The "Bian family" here is the printing shop in Chengdu. According to the unearthed cultural relics, the engraving shops in Chengdu at that time also had "Guo Jia" and "fan Shangjia"
according to the handed down cultural relics, the printed materials in Chengdu at that time were more calendar books and Buddhist scriptures. Tan Jihe said that Chengdu is located at the starting point of the Southern Silk Road, and there are many monks as well as businessmen on the Southern Silk Road, which is actually a road for the spread of Buddhism. In fact, the spread of Buddhism also promoted the carving and printing of Buddhist scriptures in Chengdu, which also promoted the development of printing and printing industry in Chengdu at that time to a certain extent
among the manuscripts based on the printed version of the Tang Dynasty in Dunhuang relics, there are several copies of the Vajra Sutra based on the "Xichuan Guojia Zhen printed version". From the perspective of the dissemination of Buddhist scriptures alone, the circulation area of books printed in Chengdu has surpassed that of Sichuan
the almanac was also published in a large amount in Chengdu at that time. Yuan Tingdong told a story. In the ninth year of Taihe of emperor Wenzong of the Tang Dynasty (835), Feng Su, the governor of Dongchuan, also played a special role in the imperial court, saying that there were private engraved calendars everywhere in Jiannan and Liangchuan areas, and requested the imperial court to order that the printing be banned. Even the official new calendar has not been promulgated yet, and private calendars have been printed all over the world
but in the Tang Dynasty, the books that readers could buy in the book market were obviously more than calendars and Buddhist scriptures. During the period of Tang Yizong, a Japanese monk, Zong Rui, came to China and bought five volumes of Nishikawa Yinzi's "Tang Yun" and 30 volumes of Yinzi's "jade chapter" in Chengdu. Xichuan Yinzi is the Xichuan engraved edition. When Xizong avoided chaos and entered Shu, Liu Yu, the Buddhist monk of the Chinese script, accompanied him. He recorded his experience of visiting books in Chengdu in the "Liu family instructions · preface". His books are mostly yin-yang miscellany, Zhanmeng, Xiangzhai, nine palaces and five latitudes, as well as word count, primary school, rate carving board and paper printing, which can not be fully understood. "
printed books also have a sense of copyright
strategies for the eastern capital
after the Tang Dynasty, printing in Chengdu continued to develop from the Five Dynasties to the Song Dynasty. In Yuan Tingdong's words, the Song Dynasty was a period when China's ancient block printing reached perfection and developed on a large scale. At this time, Bashu region was known as "the best block printing in Song Dynasty". Both Chengdu and Meishan were the central cities of block printing in Sichuan at that time
Tan Jihe introduced that during the Kaibao period of song Taizu, Chengdu was responsible for the engraving and printing of the Tripitaka, and song Taizu also sent Gao pin and Zhang Congxin to Chengdu to supervise the engraving. This Sutra has more than 5000 volumes, 1067 of which took 13 years to complete. This sutra, also known as "Kaibao" or "Shu Zang", was introduced into Korea and Japan successively after its printing, which had a great impact overseas
but this is only a microcosm of Chengdu printing during the Song Dynasty. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Chengdu engraved 1000 volumes of "Tai Ping Yu Lan", and also engraved in Meishan "CE Fu Yuan GUI", "Song Shu", "Wei Shu" and other famous projects at that time. Besides, there are too many books printed to be counted. Some books are also well preserved. Yuan Tingdong said that some engraved copies have been handed down
the prosperity of printing has also brought some problems, that is - piracy, also known as reprinting or duplicating. Compared with genuine books, the quality of pirated books cannot be guaranteed. In the Song Dynasty, some bookstores in Shu paid attention to everything from collation, board quality to calligraphy and painting, carving, ink and paper, while reprinted books were not so particular. Mistakes abound. For example, a gentleman appeared in the book of changes with the title: "Qian is gold, Kun is gold, what is the evil?" The students were puzzled. When they got the genuine edition, they found that the book in the teacher's hand was not "genuine". The original text should be "Kun is the kettle"
in order to solve this problem, yuan Tingdong said that at that time, the bookstore also added similar standard Ming characters in Europe and America that cannot be reproduced in the books. "Dongdu synopsis" has "Meishan Cheng Sheren House Publishing, has applied for the boss not to reprint." Therefore, in addition to declaring that piracy is not allowed, we need to put on record and register
translation books can be bought at the end of the year
the surface of the projection screen can be cleaned of dust and oil with absorbent cotton dipped in glass cleaner. The engravings of the Qing Dynasty collected by yuan Tingdong are as clear as new
in the Yuan Dynasty, the printing industry in Sichuan fell into a low tide and gradually recovered in the Ming Dynasty. At the end of Ming Dynasty and the beginning of Qing Dynasty, it suffered huge losses. Bookstores and bookstores were interrupted for a time, and it was not until the Qianlong period that they gradually resumed. That is, during this period, the former bookstores integrating publishing, printing and distribution gradually separated from the former bookstores, which were the printing shops and bookstores specializing in selling books. There are also many well-known "brands". This is true of yanwenguzhai and Gengjing hall
the book "Sichuan Provincial annals · publishing annals" provided by yuan Tingdong lists some printed bibliographies in the Qing Dynasty, covering a wide range. From scholarly works and poetry anthologies of scholars to books for ordinary citizens, such as enlightenment books for children, folk drama libretto, medical skills, agricultural books, etc., there are even "reference books" for students taking the imperial examination, engraved with a collection of questions for the provincial examinationAfter the Opium War, Chengdu also gradually had a new printing industry and printing houses that were different from the traditional block printing. The Commercial Press, Zhonghua Book Company, China Book Company and other institutions have set up branches and branches in Chengdu and sold many primary and secondary school textbooks
local people in Chengdu are also setting up bookstores to sell books and rigid progressive books. Yuan Tingdong said that Zhang Xiushu, a famous educator in Sichuan Province, once recalled that when he used to study, he often went to the Huayang book and newspaper circulation office opened by Fu Chongju (the author of Chengdu survey). In the "book industry of Chengdu" section of the book "Chengdu Overview", the catalogue and price of books sold in the market at that time are recorded in detail, ranging from the traditional "four books and five classics", historical records to the teaching materials of primary, middle school and University at that time, military books, medicine and agronomy are no less abundant than at present